Exploring the Variety of Zinc Oxide Production Methods


Zinc oxide is a versatile compound that is widely used across industries for its diverse range of applications. The production of zinc oxide involves various methods and techniques, each offering unique advantages and properties. Here are the different production methods used to create zinc oxide and their distinct characteristics.


Direct (French) Process

The direct process, also known as the French process, is one of the traditional methods used for zinc oxide production. In this process, zinc metal is melted and vaporized in a furnace at high temperatures, typically around 1200 degrees Celsius. The resulting zinc vapor reacts with oxygen in the air, forming zinc oxide particles. These particles are then collected and further processed to achieve the desired properties.

The direct process is known for producing high-purity zinc oxide with excellent chemical reactivity. It is often preferred in applications requiring superior quality, such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and high-performance ceramics.


Indirect (American) Process

The indirect process, also referred to as the American process, is another commonly used method for zinc oxide production. Unlike the direct process, the indirect process involves the initial production of zinc oxide through the combustion of zinc vapor. The vapor is generated by the thermal decomposition of zinc-containing raw materials, such as zinc ores or zinc residues.

The combustion of zinc vapor produces zinc oxide fumes, which are collected and cooled. The resulting zinc oxide particles are then purified and refined to obtain the desired quality and characteristics. The indirect process is often favored for its energy efficiency and lower production costs, making it suitable for large-scale production.


Wet Chemical Process

The wet chemical process, also known as the wet precipitation method, involves the precipitation of zinc oxide from a zinc salt solution. In this method, a soluble zinc salt, such as zinc chloride or zinc sulfate, is dissolved in water. Sodium hydroxide or another alkaline solution is then added to the zinc salt solution, resulting in the formation of zinc hydroxide. The zinc hydroxide is subsequently heated or calcined to convert it into zinc oxide.

The wet chemical process offers versatility in terms of particle size control and the ability to produce various grades of zinc oxide. It is often utilized in applications where specific particle sizes or surface treatments are required, such as in rubber manufacturing and coatings.


Spray Pyrolysis Process

The spray pyrolysis process involves the atomization of a zinc-containing precursor solution into a heated reactor chamber. The precursor solution typically consists of a zinc salt dissolved in a solvent. As the atomized solution is introduced into the reactor, it undergoes rapid evaporation and pyrolysis, leading to the formation of zinc oxide particles. The particles are then collected and further processed as needed.

The spray pyrolysis process offers precise control over particle size, morphology, and composition. It enables the production of ultrafine zinc oxide particles with a narrow size distribution, making it suitable for applications such as electronics, catalysts, and advanced ceramics.



Zinc oxide production encompasses a range of methods, each offering unique advantages and properties. The direct process provides high-purity zinc oxide, while the indirect process offers energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness. The wet chemical process allows for precise particle size control, and the spray pyrolysis process produces ultrafine particles with tailored characteristics.

Understanding the variety of zinc oxide production methods allows industries to select the most suitable approach for their specific requirements. Whether it is for cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, or other applications, the diverse production methods ensure a reliable supply of zinc oxide tailored to meet the demands of various industries.

In case of further questions about zinc oxide powder, don’t hesitate to call us at +62343657777 or send us an email at info@citracakralogam.com. Our team will guide you through the whole process. If you have any more questions about us, feel free to ask any time because we are here 24/7 for you.